Archive for the ‘Tajweed’ Category

Lesson 3: Al-Qalqalah-The Echo!

February 17, 2007

>  القلقلة is  an echoing sound.

There are five letters in the quran that are: Qaaf, taa, baa, jeem and daal (ق ط ب ج د )-  قطب جد

      Rule: Only when there is a sukoon on any of these letters, or if you stop at them.

     In the Qur’an: an echoing sound that follows the ق ط ب ج د, in their “sukoon” form only (or if you     cause it to have a ‘sukoon’, as in stopping at the word that ends with one of these letters).

The reason for qalqala is to make sure the letter is heard perfectly.

 

Because when you stop at one of these letters, you’re closing your airway, and the person listening cannot tell what the last letter was.

 

Qalqala needs a lot of practice to be said accurately; it doesn’t follow the harakah of the letter before it or after it.

There are Three different levels of Qalqalah:

 

Level 1 :   The least strength is when it is in the middle of a word

وخلقْناكم أزواجا”, و لا تجْزون إلا ما كنتم تعملون or when you are connecting it with the next word قدْ بينا الآيات لقوم يوقنون. Here the “echo” is very light.

 

 Level 2:    Middle strength, when the letter is in the end of a word, with no shaddah والله من ورائهم محيط”, “بل هو قرآن مجيد 

 

Level 3:     It has a shaddah and it comes at the end of an ayah. The strongest qalqalah is when the word is in the end, and has a shaddah, you drop the last harakah, and say it with qalqalah قال رب احكم بالحقٌ 

Here you’d hold the qalqalah for a little bit, because it has shaddah and sukoon.

You drop the last harakah, and leave the shaddah as its part of the word, so if it is haqqi, you make it haqq.

 

Question : which level is the word تب in first ayay in
surat al masad?

 

 (answer: Level 3)

 

Sources: The above notes are taken from an online halaqah on tajweed (which started recently), and the teacher is using the book “بعض المفيد في علم التجويد“, and few websites.

Lesson 2: الإستعاذة و البسملة

February 4, 2007

Rulings of “Al-Isti3adha”

 

Al-Isti3aadha means seeking refuge in Allah : أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم

Is saying Isti3aadha before reciting Quran a fard?

A group of scholars say that saying Isti3adha is a fard, and they cite the ayah from Surah An-Na7l :

 فإذا قرأت القرآن فاستعذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم

“So when you want to recite the Qur’ân, seek refuge with Allâh from Shaitân (Satan), the outcast (the cursed one).” (16:98)

So, by reciting al-isti3adha, we hasten towards what Allah (swt) has commanded.

There are different ways of saying al-isti3adha:

أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم 

 أعوذ بالله السميع العليم من الشيطان الرجيم

أعوذ بالله من الشيطان 

It is said that the best is the first one, as it is the one mentioned in the quran, and Allah knows best.

Al-isti3adha  is said in the beginning of the surah, or in the middle.

There are two occasions where you read al-Isti3adha loudly: when you are reading “jahran” and there are people listening, and when you began reciting in a halaqah (teaching).

There are four occasions where you pronounce it “sirran” (silently):

1)      In salah (as the Prophet  used to do it).

2)      In quiet recitation.

3)      When you’re not the first one reciting in a halaqah.

4)      When you are reciting alone (whether reciting out loud, or quietly to your self).

الإستعاذة و البسملة

البسملة = بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Seeking refuge and starting with the Name of Allah

Saying “أعوذ بالله” and “بسم الله” has four methods in the beginning of each surah: Stopping between all, stopping between “استعاذة” and “بسملة”, stopping between “بسملة” and the first ayah, and finally connecting all.

 All of these methods are accepted in the beginning of each Surah except Surah At-Tawbah”

Question: What do we do between
surat “al-anfal” and “attawbah”, knowing there is no “استعاذة” between surahs?

You connect the last ayah of Surah Anfaal with At-tawbah.

 

And If you started/began your recitation with Surah At-Tawbah, then you can say Al-Isti3adha (but not basmallah, since it is not said before Surah At-Tawbah).

Sources: The above notes are taken from an online halaqah on tajweed (which started recently), and the teacher is using the book “بعض المفيد في علم التجويد“, and few websites.

Tajweed: Lesson 1

February 3, 2007

النون و الميم المشددتين

Al noon wa al- meem al mushaddatain  (The letter meem and noon with shaddah)

 

غنة – (ghunnah) The letter ‘meem’ and ‘noon’ are known as ‘ghunna’ letters, nasal sounds. So, a ‘ghunna’ linguistically is nasal sound.

 

In tajweed classification, it is a sound within the ‘noon’, ‘tanween’ and the ‘meem’. This ‘ghunna’ is apparent in these letters whether they have a ‘haraka’ (moving) or not (has a sukoon – not moving)

When it has a shaddah شدة  ,the ghunnah is even stronger, whether it has it has a sukoon or a harakah.

 A ‘shaddah’ is a double letter sound, one with sukoon, the next moving, i.e. with a harakah. The shaddah in tajweed is 2 harakaat long (equals 2 seconds). For example: .

It comes in the middle of a word, like النٌاس، الجنٌة، مسمٌى” 

It is called “Al meem (/alnoon) mushaddadah bil ghunnah”. This only happens with the meem and noon.

 

Or in the end, جانٌ، ثمٌ”  still elongate 2 sec, (jaannn, Thummma)

So this is a simple rule, any time you see a meem and noon with shaddah, you automatically make it 2 secs longer, and don’t hesitate about it.

Quiz: How many ‘meem’letters  are there in the word, مِمٌَا ?

 

ABCs of Tajweed (cont’d)

January 28, 2007

مراتب القراءة 

There are 5 levles of recitation:

 

1)      التحقيق at-tahqeeq- reading in a slow paced manner, with tranquility, for the purpose of teaching

     and pondering on the meanings; careful recitation with the rules. 

2)       الترتيل – At- Tarteel, reading in  slow paced manner, with tranquility and ease but not for the purpose of teaching, yet still pondering on the meanings, and paying attention to the rules of tajweed 

3)      الحدر Al-hadr is reciting in a fast manner yet following all the rules.

4)      التدويرTadweer, reading in a balanced manner between hadr and the slow paced recitation, yet still reading with rules. Ibn Al-Jazari said: This is the recitation of most of the recitors. So it is between (h)7adr and tarteel.

5)      زمزمة  The last level is Zamzama: Reading in a low fast manner (to yourself). Example is, when you’re reading in salah, or to yourself. This is the opposite of at-ta7qeeq.

Which Recitation is the best?

Ibn-Mas3ood (RA) and Ibn Abbas(RA) and others said if you read slow and in small portions of the quran you get more reward! So you get to ponder while not over-burning your self by reciting too much.

Al-Shafi’i’s position is different, he says read fast to gain maximum reward and he used the hadith of “Alif lam meem”, narrated by ibn Mas’ood as evidence (The Messenger of Allaah  said: “Whoever reads one letter from the Book of Allaah will earn one good (hasanah) thereby. One good deed is equal to ten good deeds the like of it. I do not say that Alif-Lam-Mim is a letter, but Alif is a letter, Laam is a letter and Meem is a letter.’). May Allah (swt) reward our scholars abundantly, and able us to follow in their footsteps, amen.

 Zaid ibn Thabit recorded that the Prophet  said: Allah loves for the Qur’an to be recited the way it was revealed. Which one is that? Tajweed is a balance between carelessness and too much effort. Therefore, the best is tarteel.  Ya’la ibn Malik asked Umm Salamah (RA) about the Prophet’s  recitation: she said each letter he read was very clear (he gave each letter its due right!).

     But in all the levels, the rules of the Tajweed are to be followed, and the right of the letter is not taken away.

SIDE NOTE: One of the scholars of the Quran said, when you recite Quran, you’re actually interacting with the Quran. When you know the meaning of the Quran you’ll recite the way you feel (about the ayaat). So on the ayaat on jannah they (the recitors) cry, or when the ayaat are talking about Allah (SWT) the recitors will raise their voices because it is talking about Allah (to let everyone know about Allah). So you’ll read differently depending upon what you’re reading. *Read the Quran, as if It is talking to YOU (more on it later posts insha’Allah).

Sources: The above notes are taken from an online halaqah on tajweed (which started recently), and the teacher is using the book “بعض المفيد في علم التجويد“, and few websites.

ABCs of Tajweed

January 27, 2007

تجويد

Definition:

The word Tajweed comes from the word جوٌد - jawwada, which means the opposite of something poorly done, or something low. Tajweed is reciting the letters of the Quran in the best manner, in the best way, giving each letter its due right, pronouncing each letter from the proper makhraj (point of articulation).

To say Jawwad al quran, means recited the Quran in the best manner, and mujeed means the one who does things best.

Tajweed is light and comes with ease. Some people exert more effort, and overdo it while reciting, which is not the part of tajweed. While some others recite the Quran in a laid back style, so it is also not to the point that you become lazy. Just like our deen Islam, tajweed is the middle way, it has to be done in the balance manner.

Tajweed comes from practice- it doesn’t matter what background and language you come from. So when people think they can’t do that, it’s not right, tajweed comes with practice and with time you become mujawwid. Practice, practice, practice, and you’ll be able to recite correctly.

Like learning the language and learning salah, we’ll learn tajweed slowly with practice, and not over night! 

Tajweed is divided into two categories:

      1) Knowledge: It is knowing the articulations of letters, knowing the different forms (e.g. madd, shaddah etc), and all the different rules compiled by the scholars pertaining to the recitation of the quran.

       2) Actions: is to take all these rules and apply them and do تلاوة   (Tilawa- to recite with proper tajweed/slowly).  تلاوة differentiates Quran with all the other things, so people can tell when someone is reciting the Quran, even if we don’t know what surah is being recited.

Your coming to read the Quran, is like you’re doing something great, so fix your self up and recite in best way.

The significance of Tajweed:

It is to preserve the words of quran from changes and distortions, unlike what happened to the books before Quran. And if you see the efforts muslims put in keeping the Quran guarded, subhanAllah, that shows how great the Quran is!

 

When did the study of tajweed start:

In the fourth century after hijrah, the scholars wrote down the rules for tajweed. Before this people learned verbally from their teachers (the companions and their followers).

The origins of tajweed:

We learned tajweed from the Prophet  who taught the sahaba (the companions), who taught the generation after words and so it has come down to us. Even today when a sheikh gives Ijaza’ (certificate of having learned the Quran and recited completely under a sheikh), it has the name of the student, the sheikh, the teacher of the sheikh, and all the names in the chain of transmission until Prophet  and then Jibraeel (as) and then Allah(swt)! The lowest level in Ijaza’ is 27 recitors (the number of people it has passed down through), and the Quran was revealed in 7 dialects and we are only using one.

The goals of tajweed:

Is to gain the rewards form Allah (swt) in the hereafter.

What is the hukm of tajweed: 

Studying the rules of tajweed is fard kifaya, if a group of muslims fulfills it then everybody doesn’t have to do it. But if a group of muslims don’t do it then everyone is in sin. So, a group of muslims who know the rules and details of tajweed can teach others about it.

However, reciting the quran with tajweed is fard ayn, the proof is the ayah :  “And recite the Qur’ân (aloud) in a slow, (pleasant tone and) style” (Al-Muzzammil-4)

Meaning of “tarteel”: Making it clear (Ibn ‘Abbaas); reading it letter by letter (Adh-Dhahaak), reading it slowly (Ibn Katheer). This makes easier pondering the meaning.  So, every one who has the resources to learn tajweed, must learn it. It is Haraam to read the Quran wrong!

Every one who has ability to learn tajweed should do so, otherwise we’ll be changing the words of the Quran.

And learning the tajweed has to be by listening, and not only by the book.

Making mistakes in the Quran:

 اللحن-in general means rhythym, but in tajweed means ‘error’.

1) اللحن الجلي (obvious errors): It is making a clear mistake, something that is clearly heard. For example, switching letters daal ( د) with dhal , or Qaaf ( ق)  with kaaf (ك), or changing the tashkeel . This kind of mistake is Haram.

 2) اللحن الخفي (hidden errors): This is when reading properly but making errors in tajweed, example, not saying the ghunnah (nasalization) or tanween. This one doesn’t change the meanings of the words, Arabic is correct but rules of the tajweed are not followed. Many scholars consider this type as haraam, the least is makrooh (dislikes) because it takes away the beauty of Quran.

The Reward:

‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever reads one letter from the Book of Allaah will earn one good (hasanah) thereby. One good deed is equal to ten good deeds the like of it. I do not say that Alif-Lam-Mim is a letter, but Alif is a letter, Laam is a letter and Meem is a letter.’” 

(Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 2910; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi, 2327)

This reward is the right of each letter, therefore, give each letter its due right, by pronouncing it correctly!

Following are the 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet:

أ- ب- ت-ث-ج-ح-خ-د-ذ-ر-ز-س-ش-ص-ض-ط-ظ-ع-غ-ف-ق-ك-ل-م-ن-ه-و-ي

 

I found a very useful article, definitely a good read!

The first Battle!

November 18, 2006

 

Having trouble pronouncing ض ?

 

The sound of “ ض” is unique to Arabic only, also known as the language of dhaad (لغة الض  ). It can be very tricky for beginners in tajweed. I personally find it one of the toughest letters to pronounce. But with the help of Allah(swt) and some tips, you’ll find it easier to pronounce and be able to “hear” your mistakes with time. And like everything else, practice makes it perfect!

A dear friend of mine spent some time with me on explaining the technique/ways to pronounce ض. The following is mostly from our conversations:                                  

      
The Sukoon: ضْ

Pronouncing the ض  with sukoon on:

The First Part:

  • The two edges of the tongue should be touching the upper side teeth/gum of the upper jaw. The pressure is on these sides, while the tip (of the tongue) barely touches the curved jaw (front upper teeth bone), this way you do not pronounce daa’ sound.
  • Again, the tip is lightly touching the curved jaw bone (front upper teeth), while the pressure is on the edges of the tongue touching and pressing against the side teeth (upper).

Friend:  got that part

Me: yes, now the mouth is curved?

Friend: of course the mouth is curved in the dhaa !

Me: :S

Friend: it is fast move.. u don’t touch and stay for a while 

The second part: the tongue is pushed to the front until it gets to the area where the gum meets the upper front teeth.

So, the tongue starts from the back and slides to the front (that is why the tip of the tongue should be slightly touching the upper jaw), while putting the pressure by the edges (the two side) of the tongue on the side teeth.

  • So the sides are pressing against the side teeth, while the tongue (tip) slides towards the front gum and teeth.
  • So, In the voweled  ض- ضَ ض’ ضِ   , you put pressure on the edge of the tongue (the two sides of the tongue).
  • The harakah is similar to sukoon, except it is a fast and short sound.

Review:   

Friend: put the tip on the bone of the jaw where the curve ends             

make sure the sides of the tongue touching teeth / gum            

slide the tongue to front teeth while trying to make a sound             

you must hear a sound caused by the friction b/t the tongue and the meat of  upper jaw 

 Me: a short –iddhhhh 

Friend: that sound comes out because you are blocking all the channel of the air, while trying to say something 

Me: i can’t cont. ‘cause air has no place to go 

Friend: thats the whole point .. the air should have the short distance from bone to teeth Friend: how long you wanted it to be?Me: i thoguht you could continue it like Raa!!!!!

Friend: nooooooooooooooo

In the end, the best way is to learn directly form a teacher (recitor). You can also watch this video.  And this  picture of the tongue showig the pressure points on the tongue and its position during pronouncing ad-dhaad.


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