Archive for February, 2007

A looong Stretch! (cont’d)

February 25, 2007

المد الفرعي – The secondary madd  

Secondary madd : Unlike the natural madd, this madd is an addition to the letter, and comes after a ‘hamza’ or ‘sukoon’ (so any sukoon on waw, yaa,alif). This madd is longer.

This secondary madd has five kinds:

1)      The connected obligatory madd – المد الواجب المتصل

Reason for madd : There is a hamza following the “alif” within the same word. e.g.      assamaa2a – السماء.

{وَالسَّمَاءِ وَمَا بَنَاهَا} (سورة الشمس الآية: 5).

In hafs, the elongation is for (4-5 seconds,harakat) if its in the middle of an ayah, or at the end.

So, if you see a waw, alif, or yaa followed by hamzah in the same word then you make this type of madd. E.g. سوء

1)  The disconnected permitted madd – المد الجائز المنفصل

      Reason for madd: There is a hamza followed the madd letter within different words

The permissible madd not connected: (in some recitations they do not make this madd, but in  haffs, this madd is said)

قالوا آمنا , يره أحد, أحينا إليك, كما آمن

[So, here hamzah is between two words, and hamzah is at the beginning of the 2nd word]

Can elongate it 4 to 5 secs, or keep it for 2 secs long.

3) The madd exposed to sukoon – المد العارض للسكون

      Reason for madd: The letter that follows this madd became “saakina” (sukoon is   

      not original)

[In other words,  Madd is exposed to a sukoon, (met a sukoon), i.e. we stopped on it.

Like samee3ann baseera, we have a letter follow a sukoon but its not original. E.g.

{الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ} (سورة الفاتحة الآية: 2)

It is aso Ja’iz or permissible, can stretch it to 2,4,5,6 secs.

« Not to confuse with  مد العوض : madd al-ewad is the one where you stop at a tanween, changing it to a sukoon e.g. غفورا رحيما   

 4) The exchanged madd – مد البدل

Hamza precedes the madd letters, elongated for two seconds only.      Originally there are two hamzahs but it became one long hamza

آمنوا – إيمانا – أوتوا

[So joined the two alif together to make it easier and joined in a long alif.  إإيمانا  أأوتوا, أأمنوا] 5) The necessary madd – المد اللازم 

Madd al-laazim- the necessary/obligatory madd, the longest in quran.

It has two branches:

 

A)    Necessary madd in a word – مد لازم كلمي

           

       It can be heavy or light – مثقل أو مخفف      

    

              I.      المد الازم الكلمي المثقلHeavy : after the madd comes a letter with a real sukoon (with idgham – 2 letters, one sound – إدغام)

{الْحَاقَّةُ مَا الْحَاقَّةُ} (سورة الحاقة الآية: 1-2)

 [There is a sukoon on qaaf, idghaam because of shaddah, same with at-taaammah]

II.      المد الازم الكلمي المخفف Light: after the madd comes a letter with a real sukoon, with no shaddah (idgham – two letters, one sound – إدغام).

There is only one word in quran for this type of madd, آ ل آ ن

{أَثُمَّ إِذَا مَا وَقَعَ آمَنْتُمْ بِهِ آلآنَ وَقَدْ كُنْتُمْ بِهِ تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ} (سورة يونس الآية: 51)

 آلآنَ وَقَدْ عَصَيْتَ قَبْلُ وَكُنْتَ مِنْ الْمُفْسِدِينَ} (يونس الآية: 91).

B)  Necessary madd in a letter – مد لازم حرفي

It comes in the following letters:(صله سحيراً من قطعك)

(here the letters are put together in a sentence, but on all these letters a madd lazim is applied, and all are disjointed i.e not read together).

 

These letters are divided into a 1)Natural Madd and 2)Secondary Madd.

Out of the above letters, the following letters take on a Natural Madd: حي طهر

So, you make it 2 secs long (since it’s a natural madd). For example: 

{طه} (سورة طه الآية: 1).

And the rest of the letters take on a Secondary Madd كم عسل نقص 

{ص وَالْقُرْآنِ ذِي الذِّكْرِ} (سورة ص الآية: 1).

[These letters كم عسل نقص if come in quran, you do not join them, they are among the disjointed letters, and make madd on each letterfor 6 secs.]

 « Fun fact: the phrase in which all the disjointed letters are strung together lit. means

“how much honey is missing” كم عسل نقص (perhaps the honey-lovers will remember that!)

 

The secondary madd can be Heavy or light  مثقل أو مخفف  :

 

a)المثقل Heavy: after the madd comes a letter with a real sukoon with ‘idgham’

b)المخفف Light: after the madd comes a letter with sukoon but no idgham.

{ألم} (سورة البقرة الآية: 1)

[ In, آلم, laam and meem are 2 madd. لام ميم.

لام م  so after came the idgham, so laam is heavy and meem is light.

So meem has sukoon, therefore , light, and laam is being joined is heavy. ]

 «Below are all the disjointed letters that come in the Quran:

الم, المص, الر, المر, كهيعص, طه, طسم, طس, يس, ص,  حم, عسق, ق, م,  ن

Sources: The above notes are taken from an online halaqah on tajweed (which started recently), and the teacher is using the book “بعض المفيد في علم التجويد“, and few websites.

A looong Stretch!

February 25, 2007

 

What is a Madd? 

Madd linguistically means : more (of something).

Could be used as in to stretch your hand, to help some one by giving money etc.

      In tajweed: elongating the sound of  the ‘madd letters’ for more than two harakaat when it comes before a ‘hamza’ or ‘sukoon’.

Therefore, Madd is to make something longer than 2 harakaat.

« rule of thumb: one harakah = one second

Alqaser : shortening a sound to two seconds (harakaat) only, like {قاصرات} in the ayah :

وَعِنْدَهُمْ قَاصِرَاتُ الطَّرْفِ عِينٌ} (سورة الصافات الآية: 48).

حروف المد 

What are the Madd letters?

Three letters of madd:  ا و ي  (alif, waw, yaa…aa ooo eee)

All theses letters have to have a sukoon on them, but before the waw there has to be a dammah, yaa a kasrah, and  alif a fat7a.

 

« The و with sukoon with a “damma” before, the ي with a ‘kasra’ before, and the ا with a “fat-ha” before it. (يقول – قال – قيل)

An example of all the three letters is found int the word: نوحيها 

The different kinds of Madd:

المد الطبيعي The natural Madd 

The madd that is elongated for two harakat only is called “natural madd”مد طبيعي (it is part of the letter, and comes in all cases)

It is also called “original madd” مد أصلي –

      There are four kinds of it:

       1. Within a word (original), it can come at the end of the word as well: مالك ضحاها 

 2. Within two words (male pronoun): The connected small madd – مد صلة صغرى

إنه هو – به بصيرا 

 

[This kind comes between two words, the end of the first word has a haa-addameer (male pronoun haa- e.g. innahu إنه هو), between two words, you do madd for 2 secs.

 e.g. به بصيرا (has a waw, or a little yaa next to it in the mushaf)]

 

3. Within two words (male pronoun) : The connected big madd – مد صلة كبرى 

{وهو يحاوره أنا}، {وله أجر}، {به أحداً}. 

[This also comes  between two words, and ends with a male pronoun, but the letter in the 2nd word has to be a “hamzah”, e.g. له أجره, به أحدا  You can either make it 2 harakah, or 4 harakaat long.]

 

4. Within one word (not original) :غفورا رحيما  سميعا بصيراً

 

[So when stopping at the word, you remove kasratain and stretch it to baseeraaah.

Madd only if you stop at the word. Also called,   مد العوض (3iwadd means exchange, so change tanween to sukoon).]

حروف اللين Madd al-leen (soft letters) 

There are two letters called “leen” letters which are the و and the ي that have “fa-ha” before them, and they are elongated if you stop at the word.

[So you only make a madd if you STOP at It, therefore, MUST STOP at it to make a madd. It is 2 harakaat long. E.g. بيت ,  خوف]

{فَمَا وَجَدْنَا فِيهَا غَيْرَ بَيْتٍ مِنْ الْمُسْلِمِينَ} (سورة الذاريات الآية: 36)

الَّذِي أَطْعَمَهُمْ مِنْ جُوعٍ وَآمَنَهُمْ مِنْ خَوْفٍ} (سورة قريش الآية: 4)

Sources: The above notes are taken from an online halaqah on tajweed (which started recently), and the teacher is using the book “بعض المفيد في علم التجويد“, and few websites.

Signs In the Qura’an~

February 17, 2007

 

 Below are the different signs used in the Qura’an:

Stopping signs:    قلى، ج، صلى، مـ ،لا، س

قلى : Better to stop, ok to continue ( و إذا قيل لهم آمنوا) 

ج ok to stop/continue (neutral)

(والملك على أرجاءها.. و يحمل عرش ربك فوقهم يومئذ ثمانية) 

صلى : Better to continue, ok to stop

 

 خاشعة أبصارهم ترهقهم ذلة..وقد كانوا يدعون إلى السجود

لا : Can’t stop

 (ولئن اتبعت أهوائهم بعد الذي جاءك من العلم إنك إذا لمن الظالمين)  

Can’t stop, the meaning totally changes.

مـ  : must stop,  if you do not stop, you change the meaning of the ayah.

(إنما يستجيب الذين يسمعون.. و الموتى يبعثهم الله ) 

س : Short stop 

 (من بعثنا من مرقدنا.. هذا ما وعد الرحمن)(كل بل .. ران على قلوبهم)

Seen is for saktah, so it is a quick stop

All of these signs help us to convey the best meaning of the ayah.

 Other Signs in the Quran: 

۞ : New hizb, juzu, (Juzu, Hizb, ½ Hizb, ¼ Hizb)

: “إمالة” Bringing the fat-ha closer to a kasra.

              (بسم الله مجريها)(ما لك لا تأمنا على يوسف) 

 

. (dot) : Soften the “hamza”  (ءاعجمي أو عربي)

.∙.  means if you stop at one point, do not stop at the other

     (ذلك الكتاب لا ريب..فيه ..هدى للمتقين) 

ه : if this is seen on top of a letter, that means the letter is added, and is not pronounced

    ( أولائك )  ( من نبإى المرسلين) (بنيناها بأييد ) 

o : If this is seen on top of an “alif” (not hamza) then you shorten it.  

     (لكنا هو الله ربي )  (أنا خير منه ) 

 ۡ : And finally the sukoon itself !

Lesson 3: Al-Qalqalah-The Echo!

February 17, 2007

>  القلقلة is  an echoing sound.

There are five letters in the quran that are: Qaaf, taa, baa, jeem and daal (ق ط ب ج د )-  قطب جد

      Rule: Only when there is a sukoon on any of these letters, or if you stop at them.

     In the Qur’an: an echoing sound that follows the ق ط ب ج د, in their “sukoon” form only (or if you     cause it to have a ‘sukoon’, as in stopping at the word that ends with one of these letters).

The reason for qalqala is to make sure the letter is heard perfectly.

 

Because when you stop at one of these letters, you’re closing your airway, and the person listening cannot tell what the last letter was.

 

Qalqala needs a lot of practice to be said accurately; it doesn’t follow the harakah of the letter before it or after it.

There are Three different levels of Qalqalah:

 

Level 1 :   The least strength is when it is in the middle of a word

وخلقْناكم أزواجا”, و لا تجْزون إلا ما كنتم تعملون or when you are connecting it with the next word قدْ بينا الآيات لقوم يوقنون. Here the “echo” is very light.

 

 Level 2:    Middle strength, when the letter is in the end of a word, with no shaddah والله من ورائهم محيط”, “بل هو قرآن مجيد 

 

Level 3:     It has a shaddah and it comes at the end of an ayah. The strongest qalqalah is when the word is in the end, and has a shaddah, you drop the last harakah, and say it with qalqalah قال رب احكم بالحقٌ 

Here you’d hold the qalqalah for a little bit, because it has shaddah and sukoon.

You drop the last harakah, and leave the shaddah as its part of the word, so if it is haqqi, you make it haqq.

 

Question : which level is the word تب in first ayay in
surat al masad?

 

 (answer: Level 3)

 

Sources: The above notes are taken from an online halaqah on tajweed (which started recently), and the teacher is using the book “بعض المفيد في علم التجويد“, and few websites.

Five Things Cause Five Others

February 4, 2007

Imam as-Samarqandi 

Tanbeeh al-Ghafileen

© 2003 Darul Ishaat

 Abu Hurayrah, radhiallahu `anhu said, “If anyone has five things then he will not be deprived of five others.

1. He who is enabled to show gratitude will never be deprived of increase of blessings.

“If you give thanks, certainly I will give you more.” (14:7)

2. He who is guided to persevere will not be deprived of reward.

“Truly the persevering will be paid their reward in full without reckoning.” (39:10)

3. One who is inspired to repent will not be deprived of its acceptance:

“And He is (Allah) Who accepts repentance from His servants.” (42:25)

 4. One who is enabled to seek forgiveness will not be deprived of receiving pardon.

“Seek forgiveness of your Lord; surely He is Ever-Forgiving.” (71:10)

5. He who is spurred to make supplication is not deprived of an answer. “Call upon Me, and I shall answer you.” (40:60)

Someone else added a sixth proposition that one who is encouraged to spend will not be deprived of reward thereof.

“And whatsoever you expend (for good) He shall replace it.” (34:39)

 (Taken from Yahya Ibrahim’s yahoo groups Mailing list)

Lesson 2: الإستعاذة و البسملة

February 4, 2007

Rulings of “Al-Isti3adha”

 

Al-Isti3aadha means seeking refuge in Allah : أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم

Is saying Isti3aadha before reciting Quran a fard?

A group of scholars say that saying Isti3adha is a fard, and they cite the ayah from Surah An-Na7l :

 فإذا قرأت القرآن فاستعذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم

“So when you want to recite the Qur’ân, seek refuge with Allâh from Shaitân (Satan), the outcast (the cursed one).” (16:98)

So, by reciting al-isti3adha, we hasten towards what Allah (swt) has commanded.

There are different ways of saying al-isti3adha:

أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم 

 أعوذ بالله السميع العليم من الشيطان الرجيم

أعوذ بالله من الشيطان 

It is said that the best is the first one, as it is the one mentioned in the quran, and Allah knows best.

Al-isti3adha  is said in the beginning of the surah, or in the middle.

There are two occasions where you read al-Isti3adha loudly: when you are reading “jahran” and there are people listening, and when you began reciting in a halaqah (teaching).

There are four occasions where you pronounce it “sirran” (silently):

1)      In salah (as the Prophet  used to do it).

2)      In quiet recitation.

3)      When you’re not the first one reciting in a halaqah.

4)      When you are reciting alone (whether reciting out loud, or quietly to your self).

الإستعاذة و البسملة

البسملة = بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Seeking refuge and starting with the Name of Allah

Saying “أعوذ بالله” and “بسم الله” has four methods in the beginning of each surah: Stopping between all, stopping between “استعاذة” and “بسملة”, stopping between “بسملة” and the first ayah, and finally connecting all.

 All of these methods are accepted in the beginning of each Surah except Surah At-Tawbah”

Question: What do we do between
surat “al-anfal” and “attawbah”, knowing there is no “استعاذة” between surahs?

You connect the last ayah of Surah Anfaal with At-tawbah.

 

And If you started/began your recitation with Surah At-Tawbah, then you can say Al-Isti3adha (but not basmallah, since it is not said before Surah At-Tawbah).

Sources: The above notes are taken from an online halaqah on tajweed (which started recently), and the teacher is using the book “بعض المفيد في علم التجويد“, and few websites.

Tajweed: Lesson 1

February 3, 2007

النون و الميم المشددتين

Al noon wa al- meem al mushaddatain  (The letter meem and noon with shaddah)

 

غنة – (ghunnah) The letter ‘meem’ and ‘noon’ are known as ‘ghunna’ letters, nasal sounds. So, a ‘ghunna’ linguistically is nasal sound.

 

In tajweed classification, it is a sound within the ‘noon’, ‘tanween’ and the ‘meem’. This ‘ghunna’ is apparent in these letters whether they have a ‘haraka’ (moving) or not (has a sukoon – not moving)

When it has a shaddah شدة  ,the ghunnah is even stronger, whether it has it has a sukoon or a harakah.

 A ‘shaddah’ is a double letter sound, one with sukoon, the next moving, i.e. with a harakah. The shaddah in tajweed is 2 harakaat long (equals 2 seconds). For example: .

It comes in the middle of a word, like النٌاس، الجنٌة، مسمٌى” 

It is called “Al meem (/alnoon) mushaddadah bil ghunnah”. This only happens with the meem and noon.

 

Or in the end, جانٌ، ثمٌ”  still elongate 2 sec, (jaannn, Thummma)

So this is a simple rule, any time you see a meem and noon with shaddah, you automatically make it 2 secs longer, and don’t hesitate about it.

Quiz: How many ‘meem’letters  are there in the word, مِمٌَا ?