A looong Stretch! (cont’d)

المد الفرعي – The secondary madd  

Secondary madd : Unlike the natural madd, this madd is an addition to the letter, and comes after a ‘hamza’ or ‘sukoon’ (so any sukoon on waw, yaa,alif). This madd is longer.

This secondary madd has five kinds:

1)      The connected obligatory madd – المد الواجب المتصل

Reason for madd : There is a hamza following the “alif” within the same word. e.g.      assamaa2a – السماء.

{وَالسَّمَاءِ وَمَا بَنَاهَا} (سورة الشمس الآية: 5).

In hafs, the elongation is for (4-5 seconds,harakat) if its in the middle of an ayah, or at the end.

So, if you see a waw, alif, or yaa followed by hamzah in the same word then you make this type of madd. E.g. سوء

1)  The disconnected permitted madd – المد الجائز المنفصل

      Reason for madd: There is a hamza followed the madd letter within different words

The permissible madd not connected: (in some recitations they do not make this madd, but in  haffs, this madd is said)

قالوا آمنا , يره أحد, أحينا إليك, كما آمن

[So, here hamzah is between two words, and hamzah is at the beginning of the 2nd word]

Can elongate it 4 to 5 secs, or keep it for 2 secs long.

3) The madd exposed to sukoon – المد العارض للسكون

      Reason for madd: The letter that follows this madd became “saakina” (sukoon is   

      not original)

[In other words,  Madd is exposed to a sukoon, (met a sukoon), i.e. we stopped on it.

Like samee3ann baseera, we have a letter follow a sukoon but its not original. E.g.

{الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ} (سورة الفاتحة الآية: 2)

It is aso Ja’iz or permissible, can stretch it to 2,4,5,6 secs.

« Not to confuse with  مد العوض : madd al-ewad is the one where you stop at a tanween, changing it to a sukoon e.g. غفورا رحيما   

 4) The exchanged madd – مد البدل

Hamza precedes the madd letters, elongated for two seconds only.      Originally there are two hamzahs but it became one long hamza

آمنوا – إيمانا – أوتوا

[So joined the two alif together to make it easier and joined in a long alif.  إإيمانا  أأوتوا, أأمنوا] 5) The necessary madd – المد اللازم 

Madd al-laazim- the necessary/obligatory madd, the longest in quran.

It has two branches:

 

A)    Necessary madd in a word – مد لازم كلمي

           

       It can be heavy or light – مثقل أو مخفف      

    

              I.      المد الازم الكلمي المثقلHeavy : after the madd comes a letter with a real sukoon (with idgham – 2 letters, one sound – إدغام)

{الْحَاقَّةُ مَا الْحَاقَّةُ} (سورة الحاقة الآية: 1-2)

 [There is a sukoon on qaaf, idghaam because of shaddah, same with at-taaammah]

II.      المد الازم الكلمي المخفف Light: after the madd comes a letter with a real sukoon, with no shaddah (idgham – two letters, one sound – إدغام).

There is only one word in quran for this type of madd, آ ل آ ن

{أَثُمَّ إِذَا مَا وَقَعَ آمَنْتُمْ بِهِ آلآنَ وَقَدْ كُنْتُمْ بِهِ تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ} (سورة يونس الآية: 51)

 آلآنَ وَقَدْ عَصَيْتَ قَبْلُ وَكُنْتَ مِنْ الْمُفْسِدِينَ} (يونس الآية: 91).

B)  Necessary madd in a letter – مد لازم حرفي

It comes in the following letters:(صله سحيراً من قطعك)

(here the letters are put together in a sentence, but on all these letters a madd lazim is applied, and all are disjointed i.e not read together).

 

These letters are divided into a 1)Natural Madd and 2)Secondary Madd.

Out of the above letters, the following letters take on a Natural Madd: حي طهر

So, you make it 2 secs long (since it’s a natural madd). For example: 

{طه} (سورة طه الآية: 1).

And the rest of the letters take on a Secondary Madd كم عسل نقص 

{ص وَالْقُرْآنِ ذِي الذِّكْرِ} (سورة ص الآية: 1).

[These letters كم عسل نقص if come in quran, you do not join them, they are among the disjointed letters, and make madd on each letterfor 6 secs.]

 « Fun fact: the phrase in which all the disjointed letters are strung together lit. means

“how much honey is missing” كم عسل نقص (perhaps the honey-lovers will remember that!)

 

The secondary madd can be Heavy or light  مثقل أو مخفف  :

 

a)المثقل Heavy: after the madd comes a letter with a real sukoon with ‘idgham’

b)المخفف Light: after the madd comes a letter with sukoon but no idgham.

{ألم} (سورة البقرة الآية: 1)

[ In, آلم, laam and meem are 2 madd. لام ميم.

لام م  so after came the idgham, so laam is heavy and meem is light.

So meem has sukoon, therefore , light, and laam is being joined is heavy. ]

 «Below are all the disjointed letters that come in the Quran:

الم, المص, الر, المر, كهيعص, طه, طسم, طس, يس, ص,  حم, عسق, ق, م,  ن

Sources: The above notes are taken from an online halaqah on tajweed (which started recently), and the teacher is using the book “بعض المفيد في علم التجويد“, and few websites.

One Response to “A looong Stretch! (cont’d)”

  1. Al-Madd Al-Lazim Hurufi « !…..على طريق الجنة Says:

    […] discussed earlier when covering the madd, madd al lazim is 6 harakaat long, one of the longest madd. The huroof al-muqatta’a – […]

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