Archive for the ‘Tajweed’ Category

Al-Madd Al-Lazim Hurufi

December 16, 2007

مد لازم حرفي

As discussed earlier when covering the madd, madd al lazim is 6 harakaat long, one of the longest madd. The huroof al-muqatta’a – الحروف المقطعة (the disjointed letters) comes under this category.

 When the huroof-al-madd (alif-waw- yaa) is followed by a sakin letter which cannot be separated from the letter of madd, then madd al-lazim applies- 6 harakaat long.

Did I loose you? This is actually a very easy and logical way to remember how to do madd in the disjointed letters. To many it may simply be “common sense”, but to those of us who come form a non-Arabic background, this truly is the ‘Aha’ moment!

Alright, all the huroof al-muqatta’a (disjointed letters) that appears usually in the beginning of the surah are :

 الم, المص, الر, المر, كهيعص, طه, طسم, طس, يس, ص,  حم, عسق, ق, م,  ن

Take few examples, ن is نون  , where the madd letter ‘waw’ is followed by a sakin letter – noon, and cannot be separated form the letter as it’s a part of it. So because of the madd letter, we stretch it to 6 counts.

All the madd letters where madd lazim applies are orange and ones with idhgham are pink and qalqalah letters are blue.

So, in الم laam and meem have idhgham, as their makharij meet/or are closer to each other. Written and pronounced as الف لام ميم.  Similarly, طسم as طا سيـم ميم or   طا سيمميم 

 

طس طا سين

ص صا د

 كهيعص  كا ف ها يا عين صا د المص  الف لامميم صا د

 and because it has a qalqalah letter daal at the end of it, one has to do qalqalah on it. Listen to any recitor and you will see the difference in the madd ending with qalqalah.

Other examples:

م  ميم

ق    قا ف

عسقعين سين قا ف

الرالف لام را 

   Notice that letters that do not end in sukoon after the madd letter, are only: 

stretched to 2 harakaat

 ها يا – كهيعص 

 الر – را

طس – طا سين

 * The above is taken from the tajweed classes being offered at IIT -www.islam.ca

Thoughts on the First Day of Ramadhan!

September 15, 2007

Ofcourse, you can always skip the thoughts!

Ramadan Kareem! It’s already here. It took me by surprise, unprepared again. SubhanAlah, it’s the 3rd day of Ramadhan now, going away too fast, too soon.  And in this short time there is so much to do, so much to gain! I am penning down my thoughts I had on the first day of ramadhan, it’s interesting to know what people are thinking this ramadhan. So here are my thoughts, and inshaAllah it would be great to hear from others  as well (you can always post after ramadhan too, as time is so precious now, time always is!)

Driving my way home on the first of ramadhan I was thinking how I would explain the importance of ramadhan to a non-muslim. Being a minority in west, I find it difficult to explain to others what this month really is. To tell them that it is more than a personal choice, an annual ritual, a detoxifying fast from sunrise to sunset, a sacrifice, to connect to those who are less fortunate, to instill charity, to spiritually recharge ourselves, and so on and so forth.

 I remember hearing the khateeb liking Ramadan to a graduate school, where we train our minds and body, and eid is the graduation party! But if we truly didn’t achieve anything, then really eid is to be less of a joyous occasion for us. It’s a wonderful way of reminding ourselves of the purpose of ramadhan.

I think of ramadhan as a second chance, a truly amazing opportunity, given only to those who are extremely lucky. This is why ramadhan is so special, so precious, its one night worth more than a thousand other nights. It is such a blessed month, such a beautiful guest, like a stranger who changes our lives. It is truly out of the mercy of Allah Subhanahu wa Taa’ala that this month is given to all of  His (Subhanahu wa Taa’ala) creation, to every one, an opportunity we must seize, to change the course of our lives.

But why we must deny ourselves the most basics of life to taste the blessings of this month? Why we should go hungry to feel for one? Why so many rules to follow, it doesn’t make sense.

Perhaps it is to teach man that there is more that we don’t know and don’t understand, more we can’t know and can’t comprehend, than we think. If we believe in God, then we must submit fully and not question the logic of each and every obligation, for our minds our very limited.  Was this the first lesson our dear father, Adam (AS) learned, when shaytan came to him and said:

 “Then Shaytaan (Satan) whispered to him, saying : ‘O Adam! Shall I lead you to the Tree of Eternity and to a kingdom that will never waste away?” [Ta-Ha 20:120-121 – interpretation of the meaning]

In reality, Shaytaan promised Adam (as) the two things Allah(Subhanahu wa Taa’ala) had already given him(as). We are all eternal, our earthly presence is temporary but we truly are eternal beings! And Adam (AS) was in al-Jannah, a kingdom that will never waste away.

Indeed, there is very little we know. Lets claim back our place, or increase in our rank, in the sight of Allah(Subhanahu wa Taa’ala), through obedience. May, we be as quick in repenting as our blessed parents, Adam and Hawa (Eve)-(Peace and blessings be upon them both) who said:

“Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers”  [al-A’raaf 7:23]

“And He it is Who accepts repentance from His slaves, and forgives sins, and He knows what you do”    [al-Shoora 42:25]

“Truly, the religion with Allaah is Islam”  [Aal ‘Imraan 3:19]

The month of Qura’an:

Here is a good link to get started:http://www.islamonline.net/english/ramadan/1428/index.shtml

I’m sharing the few notes I took from a halaqah:Just like one must be pure to carry the quran, one’s heart must be pure to carry the quran.The one who carries the Quran, fears Allah, is silent, not having a loud voice (as in rude), and does not commit sins like backbiting etc (perhaps the meaning here is- one doesn’t constantly commits such sins without repentance).

It is important to listen to the quran as well.

Even the Prophet(sallallahu alaihi wasallam) asked the companions to recite the Quran to him(sallallahu alaihi wasallam).

Do not raise your voice over the Quran.

When you see a verse of Sajdah, do sujood.

(SubhanAllah, a lecture by Hamza Yusuf coems to mind, where he said that quran is not just for reciting, that is why we do sajdah rite after an ayah of sajdah, to hear and then to obey-no delays/hesitations)

 Adaab of the Mushaf: 

Do not put it on floor or under other books. Some Scholars consider it haram to put it on floor.

It is mustahab (recommended) to smell nice. Have wudu’ before holding a mushaf.

Makrooh (disliked) to hang it. (example: for protection)

One is not allowed to touch it if in a state of najas akbar (ghusl required for purification).Some scholars say not allowed to even read the quran in such a state (there is ikhtilaaf among scholars over the issue of haid)

Tilawah- Read the quran with proper tajweed, and read slowly.

Haraam to read with wrong tashkeel, read it wrong.

*Do not wait for the last 10 days of ramadhan to increase your ibadah. Do it now, it is the blessings of doing it in the beginning of ramadhan that will able you to do more in the last days of ramadhan as well.

 Ramadhan Checklist: 

The credit goes to the friend who gave the above halaqah and also made this checklist to follow, it really is helpful, not too much to so, not too little!

May Allah(Subhanahu wa Taa’ala) always bless us to be in the company of those who conctantly remind us to turn towards Him (Subhanahu wa Taa’ala). Ameen.

Ramadhan Checklist

Assimilation or Integration?

July 6, 2007

2eyes.jpg

إدغام   

 

Linguistically means to merge or to insert.

In Tajweed/Quran, Idghaam occurs when two letters meet, and one of them is inserted into another one, and then what remains is the second letter because it has stronger characteristics then the first letter.

Doing Idghaam or Merging, think highways, before you merge to a highway there are two lanes and once you merge it becomes one.

SO the little lane joins/merges into bigger, main highway.

Just like in highways, city roads become part of the bigger highways, the first letter merges into the second letter, and in the process loses more of its original characteristics.

So the two letters in quran, first one mergin into 2nd one completely or incompletely.

So, if noon sakina comes at the end of the word and one of the following letters (يرملون) comes in the beginning of the 2nd word, then there is idhghaam.

These letters are:  يرملون  yarmaloon  or ينمو , ر  ,  ل

 Two types of Idghaam- إدغام:

 

1)           الاٍدغام بغنٌة

Idhgham bi-ghunnah (i.e. idhgham with nasalization), can be further divided in two categories: a) idhgam al-naqis and b) idhgham al-kamil.

 a)      الاٍدغام ناقص بغنٌة   

Incomplete merging, something remains from the noon, so what remains back?

The nasalization remains back from the noon, hence the name Idgham bighunnah or idgham naqis.

It occurs in letters: و and  ي

Becase of a shaddah, it becomes 2 harakaat long.

Examples: من يٌعمل  mayy-yamal (add shaddah to the yaa’, shaddah and idgham together makes it 2 sec long) 

من ولي, ولي ولاwaliyeww-wala, meww-waliyun  

b)      الاٍدغام الكامل بغنٌة   

Here al-kamil means completed merging with nasalization, because meem and noon are already nasalized (it’s a property in them) and they are completely pronounced thus, klamil.

This occurs in letters ن and  م

Examples:  مٌال من , كل منkullumm-min, mimm-maa

من نٌعمةminn-ni3matin.

Most of the letter noon is not said, so you don’t give this letter full right, it should touch the upper jaw roof.

2)          إدغام بغير غنٌة    

 Idhgham bi-ghairi ghunnah (i.e. idhgham with nasalization) has only one kind, Idhgham al-kamil.

·         الاٍدغام الكامل   

الكاملKamil means complete, i.e. complete merging. When noon as-sakina or tanween is followed by a laam or raa, then there is idghaam kamil, that is, the first letter is gone completely, and is not even there anymore.

Logic: Noon has natural nasalization/ghunnah in it, but in this case one disappears completely, also called bi-ghairi ghunnah, without nasalization (combining without nasal sound). It occurs in letters : ل and  ر

Examples:

من ربهم  broken down as  ربهم  منْ, pronounced as مرٌبهمmirrabihim.

What remains is the shaddah. As shaddah is idgham!

توابا رحيما – tanween and the raa’

 من لٌدنه – milladunhu, all remains is the shaddah.

 سائغا للشاربين – the laam is not original, saa’eeghallissharebeen.

 Few exceptions:

1)      It has to be within two words. (idhaar can be within one word or two words). Four words in quran that has the letters in it :  بنيانا ,  الدنيا, قنوان , صنوان . So, we change the meaning if we take away the noon, so these are exceptions in the same word. And you won’t find examples other than these, that have letters from yarmaloon with noon sakina/tanween.

2)      Within two words: ن, ن والقلم , the 7ukm (Hukm) is to say the harf noon clearly, e.g. يس والقرآن, also in saktah latifah, من راق, man raaq.

Perhaps, the following website will clear the issue much better:

http://www.abouttajweed.com/exceptions_to_idghaam.htm

 

Sources: The above notes are taken from an online halaqah on tajweed (which started recently), and the teacher is using the book “بعض المفيد في علم التجويد“, and few websites.

 

(Note:  I have edited this post, and it is quite different from the original one.  This way of categorizing is much easier to remember and understand. Therefore, for the sake of simplicity, I have edited the post, and the contents of course comes from the tajweed classes hosted at IIT )

 

 
 

 

 

 
 

 

 

The Hiding of Noon!

July 1, 2007

إخفــــــــــــــاء

Hiding of the ن

إخفاء is linguistically defined as: hiding or concealment.

In tajweed it is the pronunciation of a letter without shaddah, characterized somewhere between an إظهار and an إدغام   (yet to be covered-lit. means assimilation) with a ghunnah remaining from the ن  and the تنوين

There are 15 letters all causing ikhfaa’, or hiding of the ن saakinah and tanween;

صف ذا ثنا كم جاد شخص قد سما دم طيبا زد في تقا ضع

It can take place between two words or in the middle of a word. 

  To hide the ن, our tongue does not touch the teeth or gum, instead our tongue moves close to, but not at, the articulation point of the next letter, with the ghunnah of the ن .

It is also called إخفاء حقيقي   because the articulation is gone, but the characteristic remains.

Here is a table for each letter of ikhfaa’.

 

تنجيكم

من جاء

فصبر جميل

منكم

من كان

رزق كريم

منثورا

من ثمرة

تمهيدا ثم

 

لينذر

من ذا الذي

سراعا ذلك

 

يَنْصُرْكُمْ

أَنْ صَدُّوكُم

بريح صر

انطلقوا

من طيبات

حلالا طيبا

أندادا

من دابة

قنوان دانية

ينسلون

من سوء

عابدات سائحات

 

ينقلب

من قبل

ثمنا قليلا

 

منشورا

من شاء

علم شيئا

 

تنظرون

من ظلم

قوم ظلموا

منضود

من ضل

مسجدا ضرارا

أنتم

فمن تاب

جنات تجري

انفروا

فإلإن فاءوا

وعلما فاغفر

ينزفون

فإن زللتم

يومئذ زرقا

 

Change of Heart!

June 24, 2007

الإقلاب     

    Changing of the ن  and تنوين

إقلاب  means to switch or change something.

In tajweed it is the changing of noon saakinah or the tanween into a  م, when followed by a ب with a lengthened ghunnah on the letter ن.It can occur within the same word, or between two words.

It does not change the spelling of the word, rather just the pronunciation, sometimes it is indicated in the text with a little م  on the top of the word.

 There are two recorded ways of execution:

 a) one is where you change the ن  into a  (sealing your lips, i.e. lips joined during recitation) م   and  

b) the other way is by leaving a little space between your lips. Both have been recorded by the scholars.

Examples:  أَنْبِئْهُمْ,   مِنْ بَعْدِ   ,  زَوْجٍ بَهِيج  ,   لنسفعاً بالناصية 

(I can’t help but post the following dua, SubhanAllah it so fits with the subject and the words. Truly Allah Subhanah wa Ta’ala controls our hearts and changes/turns them upon this deen, for whomever He, subhanah wa Ta’ala, wishes to guide.)

  يَا مُقَلَّبَ الْْقُلُوْبِ ثَبِّتْ قَلْبِىْ عَلى دِيْنِكَ 


Ya Muqqalib al Qulūub, thabbit qalbi ‘ala deenak

(O Converter of hearts! Make my heart steadfast in the deen) 

Sources: The above notes are taken from an online halaqah on tajweed (which started recently), and the teacher is using the book “بعض المفيد في علم التجويد“, and few websites.

“Operation Memorizing Quran”

June 14, 2007

I found this article very encouraging and helpful, at the end of it are also some words of advice added by a teacher of quran.

=====================================================

Tips on memorizing the Qur’an

By Muhammad Alshareef

Notice the young brothers that memorized the Qur’an in your community, they are already pushed to the front of the congregation by virtue of their accomplishment. They, at this early start, are forced to contribute to the community and live a life of significance. Bi idhnillah. That’s what we all want. The Qur’an can do it for you. But these gifts have a condition: the taqwa of Allah. There is one absolute naseeha that will make or break the persons drive to memorize the Qur’an: One must desist from sin! Ibn Mas’ood said, “I feel that indeed someone will forget knowledge they had a acquired because of sins they commit.”

iWhen Abu Haneefah, rahimahullah, was confronted with a Fiqh Mas’alah that he was unable to conclude, he would get up and pray two raka’at in tawbah to Allah. These are people who truly knew the prize to be won. Allah ta’ala teaches us in the Qur’an: “[Be conscious of Allah and Allah will teach you.] This knowledge is from Allah ta’ala, a gift. It makes no sense that someone spends their nights disobeying the gift-giver while awaiting His gifts in the morning”.

Al-Khateeb reported in al-Jaami’ (2/387) that Yahya ibn Yahya said: “A man asked Maalik ibn Anas, ‘O Abu ‘Abd-Allaah! Is there anything that will improve my memory?’ Maalik ibn Anas, rahimahullah, replied, ‘If anything will improve it, it is giving up sin.” Bishr Alhaafee, rahimahullah, said “A servant commits a sin, and is deprived [thereby] of performing tahajjud.”

One of the key: if you want your children to be effective in their Deen and their memorization of Qur’an, YOU have to be the one that you want your children to become. Do not let them see a contradiction.i
When I was young, I did not want to go to a Qur’an school. Subhan Allah. I went to that Qur’an school, I went to Madinah University and here I am today. I recently received a beautiful email after giving a lecture to the Canadian Hujjaj, my father’s group. While I spoke, my father had his head up high, smiling and crying during the speech. The brother wrote in his email that he was watching my father during the lecture. It dawned on him that Muhammad is here today giving this speech because of the dua of this man! I hadn’t contemplated it much until I read that email, for indeed it is correct. After the tawfeeq of Allah, it was the dua of my parents for me that helped me become who I am.

Ibn `Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, The heart that has no Qur’an in it is like an abandoned ruined dwelling.” [At-Tirmidhi]. What kind of home would you like your heart to dwell in? excusitis, is a most powerful sickness that keeps people back from accomplishing in life. Excuse-itis. If you interview effective people, you will rarely find them making excuses. If you want to succeed in your memorization, never make excuses. Do what you have to do. I forbid those around me from making excuses. I advise the same for you. Do what you have to do to accomplish. If you cannot, then do not make excuses.i

One of the interesting excuses is “I have to completely understand the Qur’an before I memorize it. I have to know Arabic, and Fiqh and Hadith before I start from the source.” Do not look at what a scholar is currently reading or studying. Look at what he did in the beginning. Every single scholar I have ever met started with Qur’an, nothing else. If you want to accumulate massive knowledge of this Deen, you must begin with memorization of the Qur’an. The children in the Hifdh school are well on their way to accomplishing massive accumulation of knowledge of this deen by virtue of their Hifdh. Bi idhnillah.

Let me give you two views by two very different people and how they look at the challenges of life:

Person 1: “Oh man, that’s a killer. I can’t do that. This time I just give up. Looks like I’m finally whipped. I’ll never amount to anything. I’m tired.”

Person 2: “Awesome, that was the kind of challenge I’ve been waiting for. Yaa Rabb, I am going to make you proud of me. I’m going to give it my best. I’m going to pump 110% of my energy into every part of this challenge!”

Guess which one will succeed in their memorization of the Qur’an. That’s right, the second one. Why? Because the second one has the right attitude.

When I hear someone talking about their attempts to memorize Qur’an, I can usually tell which category they have locked themselves into. It is not the Qur’an. The Qur’an is easy to remember. Allah ta’ala testifies to that in the Qur’an: [And verily we made the Qur’an easy to remember, so is there anyone who will take heed?] If you think it’s easy for you, it is. If you think it is hard for you, it is. It is your attitude that determines it.


Below are some quick tips that will help you in memorizing the Qur’an:

1. You absolutely must have a teacher.

Do NOT memorize on your own. You must have a teacher who you respect and whom you fear. Don’t ask ‘how’ to memorize the Qur’an. Ask where you can find the best teacher. The teacher will then guide you on the ‘how’.

2. Distractions.

In memorizing the Qur’an, you must free your mind and environment of distractions. Imagine trying to memorize at a football game? Tough, huh? How about a theme park, could you sit down and control yourself to memorize? Probably not. Getting into a Qur’an Hifdh program with a teacher and discipline will assist you in creating the perfect atmosphere for memorization.

3. Memorize through Audio.

A lot of people think they are memorizing the ‘look’ of the Mushaf, but actually you are memorizing the ‘sound’ of Ayat. When I review, I record my recitation on CD and listen to it again and again. The students that read the loudest in class are all the strongest students. Why? Because they can hear themselves the most?When I was in Qur’an school, the boy beside me read so loud. I asked the teacher to ask him to read more quietly. He said a most powerful statement that became my motto: “No, you read louder!” I did and it benefited me unbelievably.

4. Location of the Mushaf.

Your eyes follow a specific direction depending on what you are thinking or doing. If you are lying, your eyes go left. If you are remembering something visual, like where you left your keys, your eyes will look upwards. When you memorize, the direction of memorization is right and left, not downwards. The mistake I see people make is that they put their mushaf low on the ground and then try to memorize. In order to fully harness the power of your mind, you must keep the mushaf at eye level, and not dip your head..

5. Eat brain food.

We’ve all heard the advice of uncles that you have to eat Badams (almonds) to improve memory. Well, I’m here to tell you that the uncles were right! The food you eat, the drinks you drink, directly affect your ability to excel in memorization of the Qur’an. Do not eat fatty, unhealthy food. Do not drink soda. Eat a nutritious light breakfast, a nutritious light lunch, with almonds for snacks during the day. Subhan Allah, you will find you accomplish much more in your day.

6. Make everyday a victory.

 You can move a mountain rock by rock. Enjoy every page you memorize, every Ayah.


I am often asked about my secret to memorizing the Qur’an. They are expecting me to teach them a special ‘south-beach-hifdh-diet’ or something. (I call it tip shopping, they are expecting a specific tip). I say again and again, there is no doubt that there are three ingredients. If you have these three ingredients, you will accomplish what you set out for:

1. Dua, supplication (you must always reflect your desire to Allah).
2. Sabr, patience (it will be a testing path, fill your bags with Sabr powerbars).

3. Taqwa, protecting yourself from sin.

If you do not remember anything from this article except these three ingredients (DST – Dua, Sabr, Taqwa – DST) then, bi idhnillah, it will suffice.

`Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`As (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Prophet (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “The one who was devoted to the Qur’an will be told on the Day of Resurrection: `Recite and ascend (in ranks) as you used to recite when you were in the world. Your rank will be at the last Ayah you recite.” [Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi].

 

How many ranks will you climb on the Day of Resurrection?
How many ranks would you like to climb?

النون الساكنة و التنوين

April 24, 2007

 

The ن  that is ساكنة  is free from any vowels or حركات . It remains still in written form and pronunciation, when stopping or continuing – in recitation. It occurs in nouns, verbs, in the middle and end of words, and in prepositions only in the end such as أن   – عن – منThere is a sign for it, but it not always apparent : ْتنوين  is an extra ن found in the end of nouns, when continuing to the next word in recitation, it is left out if you stop at the word.It can have two dammas, two kasras, or two fat-has 

The letter following the ن  or تنوين  tells us how to pronounce it, and there are four main rules with regards to it : إظهار – إخفاء – إدغام – إقلاب

إظهار

 linguistically means clear, or obvious.In tajweed, it means pronouncing the letter completely & clearly from its articulation point without a ghunnah – nazalization on the letter.There are six letters – throat letters (ء – هـ – ع – ح – غ – خ ) – that, if preceded by a ن sakinah or تنوين  the  ن  is pronounced clearly.It is pronounced clearly whether  it is within one word or between two words. The tanween only occurs in the end however.Examples:

من أي شيء , ينأونمنهم, من هاد , قومٍ هادأنعمت,  من عمل , سميع عليم    وانحر , فمن حاجك , عليم حكيم

فسينغضون

من غفور رحيم

ورب غفور , المنخنقة , من خلاف

Note: Noon  has a sukoon sign showing in quran at places of idhaar.

A looong Stretch! (cont’d)

February 25, 2007

المد الفرعي – The secondary madd  

Secondary madd : Unlike the natural madd, this madd is an addition to the letter, and comes after a ‘hamza’ or ‘sukoon’ (so any sukoon on waw, yaa,alif). This madd is longer.

This secondary madd has five kinds:

1)      The connected obligatory madd – المد الواجب المتصل

Reason for madd : There is a hamza following the “alif” within the same word. e.g.      assamaa2a – السماء.

{وَالسَّمَاءِ وَمَا بَنَاهَا} (سورة الشمس الآية: 5).

In hafs, the elongation is for (4-5 seconds,harakat) if its in the middle of an ayah, or at the end.

So, if you see a waw, alif, or yaa followed by hamzah in the same word then you make this type of madd. E.g. سوء

1)  The disconnected permitted madd – المد الجائز المنفصل

      Reason for madd: There is a hamza followed the madd letter within different words

The permissible madd not connected: (in some recitations they do not make this madd, but in  haffs, this madd is said)

قالوا آمنا , يره أحد, أحينا إليك, كما آمن

[So, here hamzah is between two words, and hamzah is at the beginning of the 2nd word]

Can elongate it 4 to 5 secs, or keep it for 2 secs long.

3) The madd exposed to sukoon – المد العارض للسكون

      Reason for madd: The letter that follows this madd became “saakina” (sukoon is   

      not original)

[In other words,  Madd is exposed to a sukoon, (met a sukoon), i.e. we stopped on it.

Like samee3ann baseera, we have a letter follow a sukoon but its not original. E.g.

{الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ} (سورة الفاتحة الآية: 2)

It is aso Ja’iz or permissible, can stretch it to 2,4,5,6 secs.

« Not to confuse with  مد العوض : madd al-ewad is the one where you stop at a tanween, changing it to a sukoon e.g. غفورا رحيما   

 4) The exchanged madd – مد البدل

Hamza precedes the madd letters, elongated for two seconds only.      Originally there are two hamzahs but it became one long hamza

آمنوا – إيمانا – أوتوا

[So joined the two alif together to make it easier and joined in a long alif.  إإيمانا  أأوتوا, أأمنوا] 5) The necessary madd – المد اللازم 

Madd al-laazim- the necessary/obligatory madd, the longest in quran.

It has two branches:

 

A)    Necessary madd in a word – مد لازم كلمي

           

       It can be heavy or light – مثقل أو مخفف      

    

              I.      المد الازم الكلمي المثقلHeavy : after the madd comes a letter with a real sukoon (with idgham – 2 letters, one sound – إدغام)

{الْحَاقَّةُ مَا الْحَاقَّةُ} (سورة الحاقة الآية: 1-2)

 [There is a sukoon on qaaf, idghaam because of shaddah, same with at-taaammah]

II.      المد الازم الكلمي المخفف Light: after the madd comes a letter with a real sukoon, with no shaddah (idgham – two letters, one sound – إدغام).

There is only one word in quran for this type of madd, آ ل آ ن

{أَثُمَّ إِذَا مَا وَقَعَ آمَنْتُمْ بِهِ آلآنَ وَقَدْ كُنْتُمْ بِهِ تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ} (سورة يونس الآية: 51)

 آلآنَ وَقَدْ عَصَيْتَ قَبْلُ وَكُنْتَ مِنْ الْمُفْسِدِينَ} (يونس الآية: 91).

B)  Necessary madd in a letter – مد لازم حرفي

It comes in the following letters:(صله سحيراً من قطعك)

(here the letters are put together in a sentence, but on all these letters a madd lazim is applied, and all are disjointed i.e not read together).

 

These letters are divided into a 1)Natural Madd and 2)Secondary Madd.

Out of the above letters, the following letters take on a Natural Madd: حي طهر

So, you make it 2 secs long (since it’s a natural madd). For example: 

{طه} (سورة طه الآية: 1).

And the rest of the letters take on a Secondary Madd كم عسل نقص 

{ص وَالْقُرْآنِ ذِي الذِّكْرِ} (سورة ص الآية: 1).

[These letters كم عسل نقص if come in quran, you do not join them, they are among the disjointed letters, and make madd on each letterfor 6 secs.]

 « Fun fact: the phrase in which all the disjointed letters are strung together lit. means

“how much honey is missing” كم عسل نقص (perhaps the honey-lovers will remember that!)

 

The secondary madd can be Heavy or light  مثقل أو مخفف  :

 

a)المثقل Heavy: after the madd comes a letter with a real sukoon with ‘idgham’

b)المخفف Light: after the madd comes a letter with sukoon but no idgham.

{ألم} (سورة البقرة الآية: 1)

[ In, آلم, laam and meem are 2 madd. لام ميم.

لام م  so after came the idgham, so laam is heavy and meem is light.

So meem has sukoon, therefore , light, and laam is being joined is heavy. ]

 «Below are all the disjointed letters that come in the Quran:

الم, المص, الر, المر, كهيعص, طه, طسم, طس, يس, ص,  حم, عسق, ق, م,  ن

Sources: The above notes are taken from an online halaqah on tajweed (which started recently), and the teacher is using the book “بعض المفيد في علم التجويد“, and few websites.

A looong Stretch!

February 25, 2007

 

What is a Madd? 

Madd linguistically means : more (of something).

Could be used as in to stretch your hand, to help some one by giving money etc.

      In tajweed: elongating the sound of  the ‘madd letters’ for more than two harakaat when it comes before a ‘hamza’ or ‘sukoon’.

Therefore, Madd is to make something longer than 2 harakaat.

« rule of thumb: one harakah = one second

Alqaser : shortening a sound to two seconds (harakaat) only, like {قاصرات} in the ayah :

وَعِنْدَهُمْ قَاصِرَاتُ الطَّرْفِ عِينٌ} (سورة الصافات الآية: 48).

حروف المد 

What are the Madd letters?

Three letters of madd:  ا و ي  (alif, waw, yaa…aa ooo eee)

All theses letters have to have a sukoon on them, but before the waw there has to be a dammah, yaa a kasrah, and  alif a fat7a.

 

« The و with sukoon with a “damma” before, the ي with a ‘kasra’ before, and the ا with a “fat-ha” before it. (يقول – قال – قيل)

An example of all the three letters is found int the word: نوحيها 

The different kinds of Madd:

المد الطبيعي The natural Madd 

The madd that is elongated for two harakat only is called “natural madd”مد طبيعي (it is part of the letter, and comes in all cases)

It is also called “original madd” مد أصلي –

      There are four kinds of it:

       1. Within a word (original), it can come at the end of the word as well: مالك ضحاها 

 2. Within two words (male pronoun): The connected small madd – مد صلة صغرى

إنه هو – به بصيرا 

 

[This kind comes between two words, the end of the first word has a haa-addameer (male pronoun haa- e.g. innahu إنه هو), between two words, you do madd for 2 secs.

 e.g. به بصيرا (has a waw, or a little yaa next to it in the mushaf)]

 

3. Within two words (male pronoun) : The connected big madd – مد صلة كبرى 

{وهو يحاوره أنا}، {وله أجر}، {به أحداً}. 

[This also comes  between two words, and ends with a male pronoun, but the letter in the 2nd word has to be a “hamzah”, e.g. له أجره, به أحدا  You can either make it 2 harakah, or 4 harakaat long.]

 

4. Within one word (not original) :غفورا رحيما  سميعا بصيراً

 

[So when stopping at the word, you remove kasratain and stretch it to baseeraaah.

Madd only if you stop at the word. Also called,   مد العوض (3iwadd means exchange, so change tanween to sukoon).]

حروف اللين Madd al-leen (soft letters) 

There are two letters called “leen” letters which are the و and the ي that have “fa-ha” before them, and they are elongated if you stop at the word.

[So you only make a madd if you STOP at It, therefore, MUST STOP at it to make a madd. It is 2 harakaat long. E.g. بيت ,  خوف]

{فَمَا وَجَدْنَا فِيهَا غَيْرَ بَيْتٍ مِنْ الْمُسْلِمِينَ} (سورة الذاريات الآية: 36)

الَّذِي أَطْعَمَهُمْ مِنْ جُوعٍ وَآمَنَهُمْ مِنْ خَوْفٍ} (سورة قريش الآية: 4)

Sources: The above notes are taken from an online halaqah on tajweed (which started recently), and the teacher is using the book “بعض المفيد في علم التجويد“, and few websites.

Signs In the Qura’an~

February 17, 2007

 

 Below are the different signs used in the Qura’an:

Stopping signs:    قلى، ج، صلى، مـ ،لا، س

قلى : Better to stop, ok to continue ( و إذا قيل لهم آمنوا) 

ج ok to stop/continue (neutral)

(والملك على أرجاءها.. و يحمل عرش ربك فوقهم يومئذ ثمانية) 

صلى : Better to continue, ok to stop

 

 خاشعة أبصارهم ترهقهم ذلة..وقد كانوا يدعون إلى السجود

لا : Can’t stop

 (ولئن اتبعت أهوائهم بعد الذي جاءك من العلم إنك إذا لمن الظالمين)  

Can’t stop, the meaning totally changes.

مـ  : must stop,  if you do not stop, you change the meaning of the ayah.

(إنما يستجيب الذين يسمعون.. و الموتى يبعثهم الله ) 

س : Short stop 

 (من بعثنا من مرقدنا.. هذا ما وعد الرحمن)(كل بل .. ران على قلوبهم)

Seen is for saktah, so it is a quick stop

All of these signs help us to convey the best meaning of the ayah.

 Other Signs in the Quran: 

۞ : New hizb, juzu, (Juzu, Hizb, ½ Hizb, ¼ Hizb)

: “إمالة” Bringing the fat-ha closer to a kasra.

              (بسم الله مجريها)(ما لك لا تأمنا على يوسف) 

 

. (dot) : Soften the “hamza”  (ءاعجمي أو عربي)

.∙.  means if you stop at one point, do not stop at the other

     (ذلك الكتاب لا ريب..فيه ..هدى للمتقين) 

ه : if this is seen on top of a letter, that means the letter is added, and is not pronounced

    ( أولائك )  ( من نبإى المرسلين) (بنيناها بأييد ) 

o : If this is seen on top of an “alif” (not hamza) then you shorten it.  

     (لكنا هو الله ربي )  (أنا خير منه ) 

 ۡ : And finally the sukoon itself !